Lingual papillae

Lingual papillae


papillae as mucous membranes formed by cells bulging from underneath the tongue. Papillae are little bumps, and they make the tongue look rough. There are four types of papillae that co-exist on the surface of the tongue. These types include: filiform, fungiform, foliate and circumvallate.

papillae formation serves a specific function, Lingual papillae (singular papilla) are the small. nipple-like structures on the upper surface of the tongue that give it its characteristic rough texture.

The four types of papillae. on the human tongue have different structures and are accordingly classified as circumvallate. (or vallate), fungiform, filiform, and foliate. All except the filiform papillae are associated with taste buds.

Filiform papillae


the most numerous of the lingual papillae.They are fine, small, cone-shaped papillae covering most of the dorsum of the tongue. They are responsible for giving the tongue its texture and are responsible for the sensation of touch. Unlike the other kinds of papillae, filiform papillae do not contain taste buds.

most of the front two-thirds of the tongue’s surface. They are appear as very small, conical or cylindrical surface projections. and are arranged in rows which lie parallel to the sulcus terminalis. At the tip of the tongue, these rows become more transverse. Histologically, they are made up of irregular connective tissue cores with a keratin–containing epithelium which has fine secondary threads.

Heavy keratinization of filiform papillae, occurring for instance in cats, gives the tongue a roughness that is characteristic of these animals. These papillae have a whitish tint, owing to the thickness and density of their epithelium. This epithelium has undergone a peculiar modification as the cells have become cone–like and elongated into dense, overlapping, brush-like threads.

also contain a number of elastic fibers, which render them firmer and more elastic than the other types of papillae. The larger and longer papillae of this group are sometimes termed papillae conical

Fungiform papillae


Fungiform , magnified and sectional diagram. The fungiform papillae are club shaped projections on the tongue, generally red in color. you can found them on the tip of the tongue.  scattered amongst the filiform papillae but are mostly present on the tip and sides of the tongue.

They have taste buds on their upper surface which can distinguish the five tastes: sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami. They have a core of connective tissue.

The fungiform papillae are innervated by the seventh cranial nerve. more specifically via the submandibular ganglion.  chorda tympani, and geniculate ganglion ascending to the solitary nucleus in the brainstem..

Foliate papillae


Magnified diagram of a vertical section through some foliate papillae in a rabbit. Foliate papillae are short vertical folds and are present on each side of the tongue.

located on the sides at the back of the tongue, just in front of the palatoglossal arch of the fauces. There are four or five vertical folds,and their size and shape is variable.The foliate papillae appear as a series of red colored, leaf–like ridges of mucosa.

your tongue covered with epithelium, lack keratin and so are softer, and bear many taste buds.They are usually bilaterally symmetrical. Sometimes they appear small and inconspicuous, and at other times they are prominent.

their location is a high risk site for oral cancer, and their tendency to occasionally swell, they may be mistaken as tumors or inflammatory disease.

Taste buds, the receptors of the gustatory sense, are scattered over the mucous membrane of their surface. Serous glands drain into the folds and clean the taste buds.

Circumvallate papillae


Circumvallate papilla in vertical section, showing arrangement of the taste-buds and nerves.  The circumvallate papillae (or vallate papillae) are dome-shaped structures on the human tongue that vary in number from 8 to 12.

They are situated on the surface of the tongue immediately in front of the foramen cecum and sulcus terminalis. forming a row on either side. the two rows run backward and medially, and meet in the midline.

Each papilla consists of a projection of mucous membrane from 1 to 2 mm.  wide, attached to the bottom of a circular depression of the mucous membrane.  the margin of the depression is elevated to form a wall (vallum), and between this and the papilla is a circular sulcus termed the fossa.

they are shaped like a truncated cone. the smaller end being directed downward and attached to the tongue. the broader part or base projecting a little above the surface of the tongue and being studded with numerous small secondary papillæ , they covered by stratified squamous epithelium.

Ducts of lingual salivary glands  known as Von Ebner’s glands empty a serous secretion into the base of the circular depression, which acts like a moat.

function of the secretion is presumed to flush materials. it means from the base of circular depression to ensure that taste buds.

taste buds can respond to changing stimuli rapidly.





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Saeed Abdinasab

Saeed Abdinasab

Coffee Instructor (AST) & (Q)


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