Effect of Altitude and Latitude on the coffee
Arabica coffee is only found growing in its indigenous environment at elevations between 1000 and 2000 meters above sea level. But you will find coffee plantations at elevations ranging from sea level to as high as 2800 meters. The reason for this limited growing range is the species’ relatively low tolerance to frost — sustained temperatures below 4° C will kill the plant. Arabica’s susceptibility to fungal pathogens also limits its success at low altitudes, where such microorganisms are more likely to thrive. The growing altitude correlates directly to the plant’s ideal ‘temperature band’. In other words, successfully growing arabica coffee depends on a delicate balance between altitude and latitude. For optimal cellular respiration to produce good yields and great flavor, agronomist Leonardo Henao states that a daytime temperature between 17 and 23° C is the key factor in optimizing coffee metabolism and the storage of sugars in the seed. Outside of this temperature band, the coffee plant is effectively asleep. In the warm, tropical belt, this balance is most often achieved at elevations of between 1000 and 2000 meters above sea level.
- Arabica coffee can grow outside the tropics, but in these instances the suitable terroir tends to be found at lower latitudes. An example of this occurs around Byron Bay in Australia, where a subtropical rainforest climate in close proximity to the sea helps to prevent frost. As you may recall from high school geography class, ocean temperatures are far slower to change than the temperatures on land. This is because the specific heat of water is much higher than earth and stone; it takes about five times as much energy from the sun to heat 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius than it does to heat 1 kg of rock by 1 degree.
- the altitude range of good arabica is from 1000 to 2400 metres . In our research we have found some research papers that indicate coffee acidity increases with altitude. For example, the coffee at the bottom of a farm have a measurably lower acidity than the coffee from lots on the highest parts of the farm, high altitude affects the populations of pathogens on your farm compared with other farms at lower altitudes, Is it still necessary to spray for leaf rust or natural trap, due to the higher and colder conditions, have issues with die-back, which manifests itself when the tip leaves turn black.it is tendency that there are fewer insects at higher altitudes. Noticeable difference in soil type or soil nutrition at which altitude compared with that of the farms at lower altitudes. Soil fertility is also very much dependent on previous activities and practices at the farm, there were, at some point, cattle, which compacted the soil in some places.in our experience problems with increased UV radiation at higher altitudes is it more important or less important to have shade on farm, compared with on farms lower down the mountain. Especially, new trees suffer the impact. Having sufficient shade is key, and being able to cut back shade once the tree needs direct sunlight for blossoming is also key.
It is absolutely get higher rainfall by being higher up the mountain sometimes, there any measures you can take to reduce this risk Plant rapid growing, non-invasive plants near the coffee trees. They might be able to facilitate a slightly higher temperature around the coffee trees. there something unique about the geisha variety that makes it well adapted to growing at high altitudes, the flavour of Geisha is amplified at higher elevations, much more than with other varieties. There is no proof that the trees do better higher up the mountain. Geisha has a poor root structure which protects it inadequately against winds, which happens to be a major pain in the ass, especially at higher elevations! As we understand it, harvest is often quite a lot later than that of the other farms, which means they have often slower maturation improve coffee flavour, In this scenario, “patience” lengthy ripening takes the cherries into the next season of the year, with lots of rain.